### Thread: How does the motherboard translate machine code?

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#### How does the motherboard translate machine code?

This is the best explanation I have found on 1's an 0's:

"They're not really 1's and 0's. A computer's hard drive is made up of metal platters divided into zones whose molecules have their magnetic fields somewhat aligned in 1 of 2 possible directions."

Can anyone expand on this?

If this is true, then what happens the magnetic field direction goes perpendicular?

However, I found another person that says.

"Data takes the form of tiny elements that are either electrically charged (1) or not electrically charged (0)."

So if these 2 statements aren't contradicting I'd like to be shown how.
2. Spinning hard disks use magnetic orientation to encode 0/1 patterns.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_storage

Solid state drives and DRAM use electric charge (or no charge) to encode 0/1 patterns.
3. How "1" and "0" are represented varies across devices. How they are represented isn't that important, what's important is that the device is capable of determining whether a state is considered on or off. When dealing with an electrical circuit, typically if something is at 0v then it's considered to be a "0". If it's circuit-level voltage (ie, 5v) then it's considered a "1". There is a margin of error on each side, and different circuits will have different voltage ranges.

When storing data such as on a HDD, CD, etc then the means of representing the values changes. I'm not well versed in exactly how any of these work since I've never studied it in detail. I just know HDDs use magnetic fields and CD's use hills/valleys by burning away some material. If you were to say try and store data using water in containers, you might say that < half full = 0, > half full = 1.
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So does there have to be 2 decoders, 1 for magnetism and 1 for electric?

Or can the same decoder decode both.

I asked this similarly in the Wikipedia computing desk, here's a nice answer:

There may be many more ways to encode 0's or 1's. They could be due to a voltage transition, or could be coded by a change in magnetism, multiple voltage levels, or even more complex codings. Mostly these differences will be handled by hardware or microcode in the device. A number of standards are used so that a device can send the data on the motherboard to the device, CPU or memory in a way that every thing can cope with. The hardware will convert from the internal code to the standard as used on the bus.