February 20th, 2013, 01:44 PM
Why multiply unsigned integer by -1?
I'm trying understand some firmware code for an AVR. The variable in question is called timer0_init and is of type uint32_t which in AVR defs is defined as an 32-bit unsigned integer.
in the code there is the statement:
timer0_init *= -1;
why would you multiply an unsigned integer by -1? Would this just equal 0? Why not just say timer0_init = 0?
February 20th, 2013, 03:14 PM
> Would this just equal 0? Why not just say timer0_init = 0?
Why not try it for yourself, and see what result you do get (rather than just speculating).
No, it isn't zero.
February 20th, 2013, 04:00 PM
...because I don't understand it. If -1 is represented as unsigned (presumably 32bit) and multiplied by the value of timer0_init the resulting number would be too large to fit into a 32bit field. How would you denote -1 as an unsigned integer? I guess as two's complement so it would be all 1's? Next, how would you know how many bits to represent -1 as? If it's assumed to be an 8-bit integer it would be 11111111. If it was presumed to be a 16-bit integer it would be 1111111111111111 and so on. obviously this makes a huge difference. So how do I know how many bits to use to represent -1? Basically I guess I'd like to know how do you multiply signed an unsigned numbers together. My textbooks never mention signed an unsigned together, and nothing definitive w/ google or forum search.
February 20th, 2013, 04:39 PM
If you dig deep enough, it's all just bits and bytes.
The programmer could have said
timer0_init *= 0xffffffffu;
instead, which is an unsigned int with all the bits set (just as -1 is on a 2's complement machine).
February 20th, 2013, 04:55 PM
ok thanks. unless the initial value of timer0_init was 0 or 1 wouldn't the result overflow beyond 32bits? Those bit would just be thrown away?
February 20th, 2013, 05:14 PM
Yes, overflow is usually silent (in fact always silent for unsigned arithmetic).
February 20th, 2013, 07:28 PM
ok then I think I figured what it's doing in the scope of the program.
- The variable timer0_init is a 16bit integer (not 32bit as mentioned above)
- Timer0 is a 16bit timer
When the statement timer0_init *= -1 is computed it basically has the effect of subtracting the value of (timer0_init - 1) from the maximum 16bit value of 65535. I think in this case it is done because the program in using the timer0 overflow interrupt so if you want the counter to count from 0 to x it's the same as having it initialized to (65535 - x) and then counting to 65535 and having it throw the overflow interrupt.
The statement could have said.
timer0_init *= 0xFFFF; or
timer0_init = (65535 - (timer0_init - 1));
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