You can't. You need both addresses; the address of the node to delete, and the address of any of the preceding nodes. There's no other way, period.
Pointers are never "missing". They either contain an address, or they are NULL. That means, if you're looking at a pointer's value, you can't tell if which linked list it points to. To put it simple: the only thing you can determine from a pointer's value is if it's pointing somewhere, or not (NULL). It does not convey any type information at all.
"A poor programmer is he who blames his tools."